People of more social classes think they are better than others, even if they are not. These are the authors of the new study.
Researchers wanted to answer whether men and women with higher social status are more confident than the lower class, and whether their self-confidence helped them advance through more competent performance than others.
For her study, published in Personality and Social Psychology JournalOne team examined the results of four studies involving more than 152,000 people. The first study included 150,949 small business owners in Mexico who applied for loans. The team observed factors such as education and student income and the results of a psychological test in which they asked them how well it would pass. The results point to the fact that more socially-classed people are "shriveled" than people of lower class.
A similar finding was found in another US study in which 433 people conducted an online survey of topics such as their personality, trust in the future, and their social class. This research went a step further, suggesting that too much reliance on those in the social hierarchy was motivated by the desire to achieve high social rank.
In the third study, 1400 people completed the quiz. High-caliber people had greater self-confidence in their tasks, though there was no measurable reason why they would behave better.
In the fourth study, 279 participants participated in a simulated job interview. It turned out that those closer to the top of the social ladder were safer than those in the lower reaches, leaving the impression they knew what they were doing. This probably helped them maintain their social status, the authors say.
Peter Belmi, Assistant Professor of Business Administration at the University of Virginia, and the lead author of the study, said: "Benefits are beneficial. Those born in higher grades are likely to stay in higher levels, and high-risk entrepreneurs are disproportionately composed of well-educated, wealthy families.
"Our research shows that a social class shapes people's attitudes to their abilities, and in turn has a big impact on how class hierarchy lasts from generation to generation."
Belmi continued: "In the middle class, people are socializing to differ from others, expressing what they think and feeling, and expressing their ideas and opinions even when they lack the correct knowledge.
"By contrast, workers are socializing in order to accept the values of humility, authenticity and knowledge of their place in the hierarchy."
Betty believes the study has shown that the idea is that everyone thinks it is better than the average in the middle and the higher class.
"Our findings suggest that finding solutions to reduce class inequalities may require focus on subtle and seemingly harmless human tendencies," he said.
"Although people may be well-intentioned, these inequalities will continue to exist if people do not correct their natural human tendency to combine impressions of confidence and evidence of ability."