Difficult counting: What makes you an Austrian Nobel Prize winner? 2

Difficult counting: What makes you an Austrian Nobel Prize winner?

When is the Austrian Nobel Prize winner? Citizenship affiliation, place of birth or focus of activity give different results.

14:51, 10 October 2019

Difficult counting: What makes you an Austrian Nobel Prize winner? 3
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Nobel Committee a few years ago I created her nationality list and decided to use her place of birth. Crucial to this was the name of the country at the time of the birth of the corresponding laureate – which is not irrelevant to many born in the former Danube monarchy. Meanwhile, this series disappeared again from the official Nobel Prize page.

Birth place

In addition to this year's Nobel Prize in Literature disappear Handke are 18 Nobel Prize winners born within the borders of present-day Austria or a total of 31 in the territory that belonged to Austria at the time of her birth. At the time of the award ceremony, six Nobel Prize winners worked at an Austrian university or research institution. Another special case is the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), based in Vienna.

In the territory of present-day Austria, the physicist Nobelpreisträger was born Erwin Schrödinger (1887 in Vienna / 1933 Nobel Prize), Victor F. Hess (1883 at Peggau / 1936), Wolfgang Pauli (1900 in Vienna / 1945), Nobel Prize in Chemistry Richard Kuhn (1900 Vienna / 1938) Max F. Perutz (1914 in Vienna / 1962), Walter Kohn (1923 in Vienna / 1998), Richard Zsigmondy (1865 in Vienna / 1925), Martin Karplus (1939 in Vienna / 2013), Nobel laureate Robert Barany (1876 in Vienna / 1914), Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857 in Wales / 1927), Karl Landsteiner (1868 in Vienna / 1930) Karl von Frisch (1886 in Vienna / 1973), Konrad Lorenz (1903 in Vienna / 1973), Eric Kandel (1929 in Vienna / 2000), Nobel Prize for Literature Elfriede Jelinek (1946 in Mürzzuschlag / 2004) and Peter Handke (1942 in handles / 2019), winner of the Nobel Peace Prize Alfred fried (1864 in Vienna / 1911) and an economic laureate Friedrich August von Hayek (1899 in Vienna / 1974).

At home in the Danube monarchy

There are winners like Bertha von Suttner (born 1843 in Prague, Nobel Peace Prize 1905) or Fritz Pregl (born 1869 in Ljubljana, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923), traditionally considered the main focus of the Austrian Nobel Prize winners, but whose birthplace was "only" in the former Danube monarchy. He is often referred to as the Austrian winner of the Elias Canetti Prize (1981 Nobel Prize in Literature). He was active in Austria until the expulsion of the Nazis in 1938, but was born in the Principality of Bulgaria at that time and was British at the time of the awards ceremony.

The following laureates are barely affiliated with Austria, but have been found by the Nobel Commission in the list of "country of birth award winners" under "Austro-Hungarian" or "Austrian Empire": Eugene Wigner (born 1902 in Budapest, Nobel Prize in Physics 1963), Vladimir Prelog (born 1906 in Sarajevo, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975), Leopold Ruzicka (born 1887 in Vukovar, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939) married couple Carl and Gerty Cori (born 1896 in Prague, Nobel Prize for Medicine 1947), two Nobel laureates in literature Shmuel Agnon (born 1888 in Buczacz / Buchach (present-day Ukraine), Nobel Prize 1966) i Jaroslav Seifert (born 1901 in Prague, 1984 Nobel Prize), George de Hevesy (born 1885 in Budapest, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943), Albert Szent-Györgyi (born 1893 in Budapest, Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1937), Isidore Isaac Rabi (born 1898 in Rymanow, today Poland, Nobel Prize in Physics 1944) and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (born 1833 in Milan, Nobel Prize 1907).

Six people were active while receiving "their" Nobel Prize at Austrian universities and research institutions: Barany (1914) and Wagner-Jauregg (1927) researched at the University of Vienna, Pregl (1923) and a medical laureate based in Frankfurt Otto Loewi (1936) at the University of Graz, Hess (1936) at the University of Innsbruck and Lorenz (1973) at the Academy of Sciences. It is not unambiguous to refer to the site of their scientific "discovery", for which they will later be credited – primarily because it often takes several years and scientists are above average mobile, both in the past and today.

Citizenship with disabilities

Even citizenship is very difficult as a criterion, such as the clear cases of Kandel and Karplus: they both escaped childhood before the Nazi rule – while Karplus, more or less unintentionally, retained his Austrian citizenship, and in the registers of the Nobel Prize also an Austrian award winner, Kandel lost and was at the time of the next U.S. National Award ceremony (now also Austrian). Walter Kohn was also expelled from his hometown of Vienna by the Nazis and he never again accepted Austrian citizenship.